Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 民俗文化游加中高端酒店住宿渐成热门.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
在接下来几年里，大型住宅楼盘必须遵守第87号本地法(Local Law 87)——该法要求楼盘审核能源使用量，并保持系统以最高效率运行。住宅楼是纽约市最大的温室气体排放源，其排放量占总量的37%。“能源是一大热门话题。楼盘怎样提高能源效率？”管理着超过500处房产的FirstService Residential New York的总裁丹·沃泽尔(Dan Wurtzel)说，“如果运营预算的三分之一来自能源耗费，而现在你可以降低这块成本，那么上涨维护费的压力就减轻了。”
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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The study is available online.