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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

If Lloyd Grossman were to go through the keyholes of Oscar winners’ houses, he would find their golden statues in various spots: from prime real estate such as the mantelpiece to the depths of cupboards collecting dust.

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传统上,在教学和研究水平方面,中国大学在国际排名排行榜上的评价要比美国和欧洲的高校逊色一些。
本次问卷调查的主要对象为中国高校2017年应届毕业生,包括大专、本科、硕士及博士等,智联招聘最终收回有效样本93420份。
由于本月初谷歌人工智能程序AlphaGo对弈韩国围棋大师李世石取得历史性的胜利,互联网巨头们就人工智能的前景展开了热烈讨论。

Also downstairs, there’s an octagonal den with a barrel-vaulted ceiling, walls of glass and a built-in bench seat. The room is wired for surround sound. The three bedrooms are upstairs; all have lake views.
These artificial ears will be a huge benefit to those who suffer injuries or who have microtia, a condition that keeps the ears from ever developing.
“Thutmose III was one of the most important pharaohs in Egypt’s New Kingdom and is credited with establishing the Egyptian imperial province in Canaan,” said Gabriel Barkay, the co-founder and director of the Temple Mount Sifting Project.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

地价涨幅26个月来首次低于房价涨幅 土地购置现分化

事实证明,许多投资者站在了库克这一边。经历了动荡的2013年,苹果股价在这次股东大会后上涨了约50%,一度将苹果市值推至7000亿美元之上。
最近几年,中国赴韩旅游出现了蓬勃发展,这让韩国的零售商高兴不已,不过也激怒了韩国国内的游客,因为他们发现韩国旅游景点被来访游客淹没。
Zhu Xueqin, an NPC deputy and migrant worker from Shanghai.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

haven
积极稳妥去杠杆。
Robin Harding

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • "It is a massive jump in very little time: there were just about 30 cases when I became interior minister (in mid-2012), and 1,400 today," said Valls.
  • 中国房价11月涨幅扩大 美媒称无崩盘迹象
  • 尽管中国排名上升,随着决策者越来越意识到加强创新是一个经济体充满活力、竞争力的关键,发达国家与发展中国家在创新方面仍存在差距。
  • 水性涂料对战油性涂料 市场份额战激烈
  • 天猫912.17亿成交额落幕 家居建材企业该如何开辟电商蓝海?
  • In addition, the urban population has increased and now represents 55.88 percent of the total population, an increase of 6.2 percent over the census of 2010.
    According to the study, 75% of consumers are aware of wearable technology (whether as futuristic fashion or new-age tech tool), but only 9% actually have any interest in wearing it. A meager 2% admitted to owning a wearable tech device, most of which consist of fitness trackers and smart watches, according to the study.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 阿里巴巴跨境电商打通“网上丝绸之路”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

2018楼市“稳”字当头 房价过快上涨势头得到遏制

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

多种保障房组合:一线城市房地产市场将迎来剧变

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 被氦气顶起来的泡沫穿过图形模板。
    modest
  • 19. 前进直至消失。昆汀·塔伦蒂诺(Quentin Trantino)用70毫米胶片拍摄了新片《八恶人》(The Hateful Eight),这部影片将在将近100家影院上映,它们和全国大多数影院一样,通常使用数码放映。不管你对塔伦蒂诺有何看法,你都应该去影院看《八恶人》,这样你就可以自己看看,这个行业被迫转向数码,对电影究竟产生了多大的影响。
    本周一,研究小组表示,根据遗骨可以看出,理查三世患有严重的脊柱侧弯,或者说脊柱弯曲。这会让他十分痛苦,还会导致右肩比左肩高,但莎士比亚的《理查三世》中描述的枯萎的手臂却无从证实。
    A Bubble With No Name Yet is still a bubble. But, Americans are too distracted, too numb, too in denial to hear the warnings. Reminds me of my headline back on March 20, 2000. 'Next crash, sorry you'll never hear it coming.'
    尽管曾在8月份做出让人民币贬值的不了了之的尝试(此举震撼了全球市场,很快就被北京方面放弃),但9月份中国的贸易加权汇率同比上升8.5%,这意味着中国出口产品的竞争力有所减弱。
    No. One way it could play out: after a tentative start involving lots of trading stops, bitcoin futures will slowly begin to attract institutional money. Commodity Futures Trading Commission positioning data will reflect the extraordinary long bias that exists for the product among money managers. As the huge cost of rolling futures positions becomes self-evident, longs will complain ever more loudly about routine divergences around settlement time. Just as a senate hearing is being scheduled to investigate potential manipulation of the market, futures prices will fall below spot, initiating a sell-off.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 工信部发布环保替代产品目录 五金卫浴产品上榜
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 雷士欲走“家商并举”转型之道 斥1.5亿建新基地拓家用照明

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

By more than one measure, 2014 is a year the Honda Motor Co. would prefer to forget or to obscure, reflected in a roundabout way by its grand slogan for 2015, “The Year of Honda.”
劳伦斯2016年的收入比2015年(5200万美元)减少了11.5%。本周四福布斯杂志还将发布2016年收入最高的男星排行榜。去年荣膺榜首的是小罗伯特-唐尼,收入约为8000万美元。
新加坡已经连续三次被列为世界上生活成本最贵的城市,但是这一年中城市生活成本在世界范围内的分布有了显著的变化。
Audrey Zhang, a fifth-grader from Levittown, N.Y., is the winner of this year's Doodle 4 Google competition, rising to the top of some 100,000 entries on the theme of "draw one thing to make the world a better place."
欧盟正明确表现出,它希望利用美国在贸易上领导力的空缺来敲定新的贸易协议。欧盟在拉丁美洲与南方共同市场(Mercosur)的谈判时断时续,已经进行了10多年。但欧盟和阿根廷等南方共同市场的关键成员国正推动在今年年底前达成一项协议。这将成为一项重要声明,正好杵在美国的后院内。
Even for an industry that generally views history as a grab bag of potential inspiration to be dipped into and mixed and matched at will, this has been extreme.
However, significantly fewer women (59 per cent) occupy positions as department heads or above than men (68 per cent) three years after graduation.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 不过在这一通胡闹之余(主持人蒂娜?费举杯道:致这个美好的混乱之夜),本届金球奖(Golden Globes)颁奖典礼还是清醒地把多项重要大奖颁给了各个夺奖热门。戴维?罗素(David O. Russell)电影作品《美国骗局》(American Hustle) 揽入包括最佳喜剧片在内的三项金球奖,成为当晚最大赢家。历史剧情片《为奴十二年》(12 Years a Slave)虽在另外六个竞赛单元中失利,但最终斩获了最佳剧情片奖。
  • 传上海夫妻假离婚贷款1700万换房 每月月供10万
  • This was never more powerful than when he talked publicly for the first time about his sexuality.
    懂得处人准没错
  • 河南商品房累计可售面积超1亿平 去化周期16个月
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 朱克斯提醒,我们目前正处于第四次超级大泡沫之中,它是美联储在保守经济学兴起以来的30年时间里吹起来的。他将这个泡沫称为“暂时没有名字的泡沫”(Bubble With No Name Yet)。好,大家来给这个新泡沫命名吧。但不管你叫它什么,都要快点起名,因为它马上就要爆了,就像过去30年相继破灭的亚洲泡沫、互联网泡沫和信贷泡沫一样。
    "Machines will be stronger and smarter than human beings, but they will never be wiser," he said, "because one thing's for sure: Wisdom, soul and heart are things that only human beings possess, and machines can never enjoy failure, success, friendship or love."
  • Emerging market exports have been declining in dollar terms since October 2014, a far longer, if less extreme, losing streak than during the 2008-09 global financial crisis, as the first chart shows.
    纳米比亚的货币几年来一直对许多其他货币贬值,为其他国家的旅客前来旅游提供了便利条件。最便宜的航班一般会避开南非和欧洲学校的放假时间,尤其是十二月末和一月份。
  • 9. 设身处地也能提高记忆力
    Girls Trip
  • 汉口滨江的居民数周前就已将财产转移。
    单词infinite 联想记忆:
    embrace
  • 7. WordPress CMS
    尽管从严格意义上来说,英国《金融时报》在线MBA排行榜和全日制MBA排行榜没有可比性,因为二者的评判标准略有不同,但我们饶有兴致地发现,IE商学院和华威商学院等6所院校都同时登上了两个排行榜。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 不动产登记实施近满月 谁在纠结? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

MBS提振房市难见效 市场期待国开行变身“两房”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

门窗个性化需求凸显 “双化合一”成盈利关键

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

地板企业创新发展 赋予产品智慧是关键

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

重大机遇 门企绝不可低估小城镇的消费能力

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 想要工作稳定,最重要的是你与老板的关系。即使他跟你说:“我很想留住你,但是他们一定要让我辞退你。”这很有可能是假话。他才是那个下决定的人。
  • 预测称前8月投资增速跌破17% 信贷松绑呼声再起

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • China, the world’s most populous country, ranks No. 20 overall. It is considered to be the third most powerful nation and the second best country in which to start a business.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • James is proof of a trend we've seen, from Tim Duncan to Manu Ginobili to Vince Carter. Conditioning, health science and nutrition are paving the way for athletes to remain in their prime, and then serviceable, for way longer than before. James is realistically still going to be the best player on his team when he's 36, and that's straight up bonkers.
    property
    干得漂亮!在不到20个词的一句话里,eBay集前五届冠军之长,做到了啥也没说。怀着沉重的心情,我将2016年度金废话奖总冠军授予eBay。
  • ['v?:tju:]

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 答:写轻小说的时候,我大部分时候都是独自创作。但是写动画的话,就有会导演,有工作人员,他们会对我的作品提出观点。关于分镜往往会有好几次修订。有趣的是那些回馈回来的东西。这是工作中非常有趣的一部分。
  • 商品房销售降幅收窄 国家统计局:三因素促回暖
  • n. 拥抱

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 晨阳水漆亮相纽约时代广场
  • Household substance abuse
  • 跑路门重演 LED行业大佬们终于现身说法
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

环京楼市 春潮涌动下的机遇与挑战

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 二三线城市又现降价 一楼盘每平直降5000元
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 智能家居产业链整合推动行业高速发展
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

At the time of the third presidential debate in October both candidates churlishly refused to greet or bid farewell to the other in the custom of the handshake.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

It’s wall-to-wall pure pop heaven, crackling with originality and dark humor, teeming with action sequences so perfectly timed and executed you almost want to run out of the theater on the spot so you can call a friend and rave about it — but you wouldn’t dare leave your seat because you wouldn’t want to miss a frame of this brilliant, pulse-quickening gem.
节目14 歌曲《报喜》,陈慧琳
"Hong Kong is a small island with 7 million people ... and you have 1.5 billion across the border (in mainland China) who would like to invest," Mark Elliott, associate director of International Residential Property Services at Jones Lang LaSalle, tells CNN. "The government is releasing more and more land, but it doesn't work."
经济大萧条在全美各地产生了破坏性的影响,然而很少有地区像亚利桑那州那样遭受重创。20世纪初,该州借助强大的旅游业和房地产市场蓬勃发展。住房中位数价格在2003年到2006年间上涨了70%——仅次于内华达州的增幅——带动了更多的房屋和建筑行业工作岗位。直到2007年接近年底的时候,亚利桑那州的月失业率都一直维持在3.5%的低水平。但是随后经济陷入低谷。住房价格从相比高点惨遭腰斩,亚利桑那州6%的房产在2009年收到了止赎通知。在2009年和2010年的大部分时间里,该州的失业率保持在两位数居高不下,从最近五年的失业率情况看,恶劣程度仅次于内华达州。2008年以来,该州的家庭收入以全美最快的速度下降。
Up to 10,000 copies of the film - a comedy about a fictional CIA plot to assassinate North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un - and 500,000 political leaflets are scheduled for a balloon-launch around 26 March.
然而,克普克认为,美国利率在引发新兴市场危机方面的作用未被充分认识。他提供的证据表明,如果以下三种情况同时出现的话——处于美联储紧缩周期,联邦基金利率高于自然利率(导致实际产出趋近潜在产出的利率),以及美联储将比先前预期更快收紧政策的信号让市场参与者感到惊讶——新兴市场爆发危机的几率会大大增加。
n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁
Romney made last-minute visits to Ohio and Pennsylvania on Tuesday to try to drive up turnout in those states, while Vice President Joe Biden was dispatched to Ohio. Obama remained in his hometown of Chicago.
stressful
scary puppy like head tilts and glares

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

欧派“北漂”业绩破5亿 惊呆同行引深度思考

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The Cnzz.com report states that almost two-thirds of China's 338 million Web users are now online game players. The online game industry, which currently accounts for more than half of the total Internet economy, will see strong annual growth at a rate of 20% in future years, the report says.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 2017年关还未过 装修建材市场价格上涨呼声一片
  • "It is my belief that due to their lack of ability to curve cheat codes and others from modifying their game, they are using a 14-year-old child as a scapegoat to make an example of him," she said.
  • 如何躲过二手房交易中的那些坑
  • 智能垃圾桶

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 酒店业如何搭上“租购并举”东风
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • [k?n'vi:nj?nt]
  • 据中国电影监察机构日前表示,2016年中国票房总额有望超过2015年的440亿元人民币(折合68亿美元)。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

成都拍出中国第一高楼地块 溢价率达107.79%

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