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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

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这是第一首真正意义上的007系列电影主题曲(再说一次,詹姆斯·邦德前两部电影开场只使用了管弦乐),至今仍然是最好的一首。雪莉·巴赛得到了唱出自己心声的机会,她很乐意接下这个挑战。这首歌增添了《金手指》中反派人物奥里克的危险性(还有吸引力),但这仅仅只是雪莉·巴赛歌曲魔力的一部分。詹姆斯·邦德傲慢自大、英雄主义、诱惑人心、虚幻迷离,但谁在乎啊?这首歌就是为詹姆斯·邦德所作,歌词充满男子气概,歌手的演唱简直完美。
3. “Spotlight” (Tom McCarthy)
On this season I have but one thing to say: I love you.值此佳节,我只有一句话要告诉你:我爱你

In this ranking of 90 European business schools, Insead in France leads the field for full-time and EMBA programmes, while the University of St Gallen in Switzerland is top for MiM. Iese of Spain and IMD of Switzerland were ranked number one for customised and open-enrolment executive education programmes respectively.
在甲骨文球场以77比111耻辱性地输掉的这场比赛中,科比11投仅1中,其中三分球7投1中,全场只拿下4分。在上个赛季输给圣安东尼奥马刺队的比赛中。他也曾14投1中。
皮克斯动画公司CEO乔布斯(此时乔布斯已重返苹果公司)在苹果展销会上作演讲,1997年,1月7日

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

委员建议:征地补偿也应征个税 防止一夜暴富

[si'vi?]
Once you grow your hair slightly longish, be sure to play with it at every opportunity.
Beijing has responded with increasing rancour against Seoul’s decision to deploy Thaad, the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence platform. While South Korea insists the system is for defending itself against North Korean missiles, China fears the technology will allow an ally of the US to spy on its military developments.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

单词surrogate 联想记忆:
国王队由于签约拉简-朗多,科斯塔-库佛斯和马可-贝利内里,实际上还欠费城一个未来首轮签(无保护,最迟2019年)。传说中的无计划重建队啊。
3.视频编辑:增长了19.2%

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 17. Most Complex Hurdle As of Dec. 7, seven out of 20 domestic top-grossing movies released this year had female-driven stories, according to the website Box Office Mojo. By contrast, five out of 20 female-driven stories topped the international market, which accounts for some 70 percent of the industry’s revenue. This may look bad, but the numbers appear marginally better than they have in recent years.
  • 高档小区怎敢“雨污不分离”?
  • engaged
  • 深圳95后“购房力”爆表 分析人士:“拼爹”而已
  • 欧洲建材市场洗牌加剧,德国最大五金连锁店濒临倒闭
  • “I thought it would be impossible to replace Steve, and to some extent that’s true,” says Professor Michael Cusumano of MIT’s Sloan School of Management. “But internally the spirit is still alive and the company is organising around a less confrontational culture. We have to give Tim credit for that.”
    过去三年,由于北京决定在官方总收入中增加新的服务费,有关中国票房增长的结论变得复杂起来。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 北京别墅市场开启“竞配赛”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

网传无锡楼市反其道而行:边限购边补贴买房者

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

家居家装行业分化时代趋近 2017年将迎来产业创新时代

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Yes. There are plenty of positives: earnings, economic growth, and US tax cuts. But they are already known. Stocks look ridiculously expensive by historical standards, but that tells us nothing about short-term moves. Ultimately, it comes down to liquidity, which has driven markets since they emerged from the crisis in 2009. If all goes according to plan, central banks will be decreasing their balance sheets, and removing liquidity, by the end of 2018. If they go through with this, the odds are that the S&P will stall. But even a tiny tremor could make the bankers blink. Expect the momentum to continue.
    6.I’m 29. – Because 29 is like 20 years younger than 30.
  • 自1983年以来,每年的央视春晚就成为了中国人民春节必不可少的重要组成部分,也难怪主办方的每个举动都能成为关注的焦点。
    伊丽莎白?泰勒和理查德?伯顿的爱情之
    I’m not saying you should blindly accept everything that’s offered to you, it’s okay to take time when considering the pros and cons of an opportunity. But, when you find yourself leaning toward “No,” you owe it to yourself to be sure that you’re turning down the opportunity for a valid reason, not just out of fear.
    三线城市居民的经济压力和人际关系压力相对较小,且拥有更好的社会环境、自然环境和基础设施。
    Ranked fourth with 15.27 million visitors, Dubai "made a quantum leap to become the global top-ranked" in visitor spending, the report says.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 股市开年四次熔断内幕 资金转10万单价住宅?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 涂料行业9项新标准将于2016年1月1日起实施

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

WHAT: A riverfront contemporary with three bedrooms and three and a half bathrooms
Amazon founder Jeff Bezos rose to No. 3 on the list for the first time, thanks to the jump in in Amazon shares, which boosted his net worth to $72.8 billion.
台风艾玛
8.《生活大爆炸》白板上的公式都是真的
Growth in the key sectors driving China’s economy softened last month, according to official gauges tracking activity at manufacturing, services and construction businesses.
那么2015年最好的职业是什么?保险精算师高居榜首,他们是分析财务风险方面的专业人员。
6. You don’t just pass in front of the TV if i’m watching football, you better crawl on the floor.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Most technology developers are seeing app use grow and web use decline. That means companies have to have strong, fast, meaningful mobile platforms and those that don't lose customers.
  • 北京今年新增减税规模预计400亿
  • ['institju:t]
    这项发明是伟大的,但也是愚蠢的。”这个开瓶器号称是“世界上第一个智能开瓶器”,但它不是突破性的。这个开瓶器能在你开酒瓶的时候通过短信发消息通知你的好友,这很疯狂,对吗?
  • 2017年兰州楼市回顾 外来房企优势凸显
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 理想化地描述并粉饰往昔,把往昔置于想象中的玫瑰色光环中,这是人类的天性。
    neglect
  • 美国科学家Craig Bennett,Abigail Baird,Michael Miller,和George Wolford被授予搞笑神经科学奖,以奖励其在脑科学研究方面的贡献。他们的研究显示,利用复杂的设备加上简单的统计学方法,你几乎可以在任何地方得出有意义的脑活动研究结果——甚至是在一条死去的鱼身上也是如此!
    Girls Trip
  • They are beginning to fret far more about insecure contracts, precarious scheduling, low wages and new forms of work via online gig economy platforms such as Uber. The OECD, the influential Paris-based club for rich countries, will publish a “jobs strategy” in 2018 that is likely to put much more emphasis on the quality and inclusiveness of work.
    联合国表示,菲律宾总统发起的禁毒战争存在人权问题。周日杜特尔特因此向联合国发起抨击,并表示菲律宾可能离开联合国,转而与中国和非洲国家组成一个新机构。
  • Usher “Good Kisser” (RCA)
    mask
    At least 120 million American voters had been expected to cast votes in the race between the Democratic incumbent and Romney after a campaign focused on how to repair the ailing U.S. economy。
  • Yao has been at the center of a hostile takeover battle for China's largest real estate developer China Vanke Co Ltd (000002.SZ).
    骑行背带
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 政策托底提振市场信心 沪楼市银十爆发创年内新高 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

5月深圳二手房继续降温 全市租金小幅下滑

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

29省份经济半年报:长江中上游领跑 广东领先优势扩大

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

国家统计局:一线城市11月新建商品住宅销售价格环比微涨

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

中国陶瓷进出口额下降成“新常态” 企业需适应

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 考虑到猛龙现有的轮转人员,伊巴卡和塔克的到来使猛龙的防守大幅度提升了。鉴于洛瑞和德马尔-德罗赞一到季后赛得分效率就下降的黑历史,这两笔交易也给了主教练德韦恩-凯西足够的武器用来拿下那些季后赛胜利。
  • Perhaps just as important, stable or falling prices will boost the inflation-adjusted pay of U.S. workers and gives them more bang for their buck. "It's an unambiguous positive for household demand," said Neil Dutta, head of economics at Renaissance Macro Research. "People will have more money to spend."
  • 央行公布去年金融数据报告:超四成贷款用于买房

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 汇丰银行经济学家屈宏斌表示,汇丰银行的调查结果表明中国制造业正在失去增长势头,预计中国政府会采取措施对抗经济放缓。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 埃尔多安对荷兰的声讨升级发生在这样一个时刻:上周末,在荷兰官员禁止土耳其部长在荷兰国内的土耳其社区拉票之后,安卡拉与海牙之间开始了一场针锋相对的相互报复。
    朋友很重要
    单词inspection 联想记忆:
  • Wardrobe malfunctions was another common theme. Some hapless interviewees “showed up in sweatpants,” one “was wearing mismatched shoes,” and another “didn’t realize his zipper was down.”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 除了这一综合排行榜,《美国新闻与世界报道》还提供了地区、国家、特定专业大学排行榜,方便大家进行更为细致的搜索。
  • 建材行业周报:10月水泥需求增速-3.5%
  • That creates an identity vacuum to be filled.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • LED照明行业并购“风云起”:万润科技7.4亿收购两公司 强势进军广告领域
  • Household substance abuse
  • 林氏木业年后首家体验馆曝光 杭州将成O2O分水岭
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

装配式建筑“抱团”发展 长沙力争三年形成千亿级产业集群

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 新个人所得税法征管办法将全面实施
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 三年四次对华实行反倾销 卫浴企业生存困境管窥
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

过去一年中,亚利桑那州最大的赢家是建筑和休闲/酒店行业,这两个行业共增加了超过1万个就业机会。其他快速增长的行业包括商业服务、金融活动、教育和医疗服务。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2
在周二晚上,史蒂芬·库里砍下37分,带领卫冕冠军以115比110艰难的击败了多伦多猛龙,豪取开赛12连胜。
苹果推出了新一代iMac 电脑,1998年5月6日,旧金山
Science and engineering fields dominate the list of highest-paying college majors, with software engineering, bioscience, and electronic information engineering among the most lucrative majors.
After exhausting all his options, the practical kid decided to tend to his academic responsibilities, not knowing how long it would take before someone finds him.
Estimates vary, but the research firm IDC projects that wearable tech will exceed 19 million units this year—more than triple last year’s sales—and will soar to 111.9 million units by 2018. Credit Suisse values the industry at somewhere between $30 billion and $50 billion in the next two to four years. But before that happens, the nascent market has that pesky wouldn’t-be-caught-dead-wearing-it hurdle to clear.
IT富豪榜排名前十的富豪的平均年龄为45岁,现年52岁的马云是其中年纪最大的一位。
高中版的霍华德不像NBA版的霍华德那样令人生畏。如此看来,成为一个NBA巨星,霍华德付出了十倍的努力。
美国哥伦比亚大学地球研究所周一发布的《2013全球幸福指数报告》显示,那些追寻快乐和幸福的人应该到北欧去,但得避开埃及以及那些受到欧元危机影响的国家。
Take targeted policies to cut excess urban real estate inventory

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

佛山住房公积金利用率高

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 每个伟大的侦探都需要专属于自己的经典故事。对于福尔摩斯而言,这个故事是《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》。对于阿加莎?克里斯蒂笔下龟毛的比利时侦探赫克尔?波洛而言,这个故事是《东方快车谋杀案》——故事讲述了一个嗜血的恶棍在驶向巴尔干半岛的列车上杀死了一个有钱的商人。真相果真是如此吗?西德尼?吕美特曾在1974年将该故事拍成了一部备受喜爱的电影,强大的演员阵容包括肖恩?康纳利、英格丽?褒曼和阿尔伯特?芬尼(饰演侦探波洛)。如今肯尼思?布拉纳自己戴上了侦探波洛的大胡子,披挂上阵,同时又担当幕后导演。这部新版电影的演员有约翰尼?德普、黛西?雷德利、米歇尔?菲佛、佩内洛佩?克鲁斯和朱迪?丹奇。这个故事还能挖掘出什么新内容呢?也许会有。不过,即使没有,阿婆的粉丝也肯定会去看。这部电影将于11月3日在英国上映,11月10日在美国、中国和土耳其上映,11月30日在中国香港和新加坡上映。(资料来源:二十世纪福克斯电影公司)
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 地区
  • 菏泽取消限售并不具备全国效应 明年楼市会回温吗?
  • The impact will also ripple out to some net commodity importers, Mr Williams believes, with higher commodity prices likely to boost the price of resource-intensive manufactured goods such as steel, bolstering the value of exports from the like of South Korea.
  • 泉州建材联盟合奏产业强音
  • 2017已经是詹姆斯在联盟中的第十四个赛季,但他的场均助攻和篮板竟然还创下了职业新高。在这个赛季的前两个月里,他拿出了整个职业生涯最好的三分表现,但鉴于这已经被各方专家们讨论和剖析,并且被媒体广泛的报道了,我在这里就不加赘述了。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 湖北国际物流核心枢纽项目开工建设 投资逾180亿元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 'One of the challenges of writing the book was that attitude that a heterosexual man can change a woman's life and make her go weak at the knees.
  • 一座陵墓般的濒危物种仓库。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

湖北荆州将新增68万平方米“绿色建筑”

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